The Epidemiology of Obesity

Currently, the total incidence of obesity, which is defined as the body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg / m² in the USA is 33 %. If this existing trend were to continue, by 2030, half of the total population within the USA will be obese. This means that obesity would replace tobacco and become the single most important preventable cause of chronic noncontiguous diseases. In the past 30 years, the number of morbidly obese in the USA, has increased by 350 %. The annual losses related to the treatment of the associated diseases and the work leave for obese persons in the USA was 100 billion dollars. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, over 62 % of the population is overweight, which requires clear answers from the medical professionals, when it comes to the most optimal models of treatment. Toward the end of the last century, obesity became a global epidemic. The epidemic proportions of obesity are being confirmed by the current assessments that there are around 300 million obese persons and over a billion overweight persons in the world. The USA is a frontrunner when it comes to the number of obese persons, since 2/3 of the population is considered overnourished, and 31 % is considered obese. The epidemiological data for Europe show that there is an increase in obesity in all age groups, with especially alarming data for the younger age groups of children and adolescents. It is estimated that over 40 % of Europeans is overnourished, and around 20 % is obese. Although, obesity was initially the most common in the highly developed countries, it is now becoming more common in developing countries, that is, in the least developed countries, where it is almost equated with the problem of undernourishment. It is considered that the contemporary lifestyle, with its prevailing sitting activities and the wide availability of refined foods which contain high percentages of fats and simple carbohydrates, affect the development of the previously mentioned epidemic indicators. Croatia is one other country which follows these world trends, because 38.1 % of their adult population is overweight, while 20.3 % is obese.